The time of crisis calls for the action of change. Many have proposed feasible ways to improve society in general. One of the many proposals is the Doughnut Economics by British economist Kate Raworth. The model of the “Doughnut Economy”, as its name suggests, is shaped like a doughnut. The two binding elements that determine the doughnut economy are the ecological ceiling and the social foundation. To set up the basic structure of the model, one must bear an understanding of how “sustainability” is equally important as “development” in the field of economics. The most widespread model nowadays is the Kuznets curve. It describes how environmental degradation and high level of pollution are inevitable in developing countries during their early stages of industrialization. The reason behind this theory is the human nature of meeting basic needs in terms of survival. Therefore, as many would see economic prosperity and industrialization as the key foundation to sustainable living, it has been normalized that a country should put forth economic development and prosperity before environmental sustainability.

On the other hand, Kate Raworth, a Professor of Practice at Amsterdam University, the destruction of the natural environment and exploitation of resources have reached their capacity. Although the Kuznets curve claims that this trend would be reversed after the state reaches affluence, it would not take long before the resource ends up overused and irreversibly violated. So when is economic development enough? When should we put a stop to the endless consumption of resources and start thinking of our future generations?

Doughnut Economic criticizes how humanity created the system which is evident that it has become far from reality. This case study demonstrates how human-system relation is a two-way interaction shaping the dynamics of the urban environment. Such an ideal of human progress has come to the criticism of creating a system that human beings could no longer inhabit. Then comes the question of how could India adapt to the sustainable model for development. As India is one of the densest populated countries in the world, along with its many issues of high unemployment, income inequality, and drop in aggregate demand, it requires a call for change. Raworth suggested several crucial points for the government to set its hands on such as closing tax loopholes, making use of demurrage, etc. Yet, a policy change is just a drop of water against the big vast sea of inherited issues. Other issues stem from cultural, societal, and even educational aspects. One must always be aware of the underlying path of our actions and decisions could lead to in the future.

Jun-Rong Lin

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